The Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI)

In Assessment Tools on August 23, 2009 at 9:58 pm

CTONI was replaced by CTONI-2 by authors in 2009.


Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition


Donald D. Hammill, Ed.D.
Nils A. Pearson, Ph.D.
J. Lee Wiederholt, Ph.D.

The CTONI-2, a revision of the popular Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI™), is an unbiased measure of nonverbal reasoning abilities in individuals for whom most other mental ability tests are either inappropriate or biased. This new instrument includes an expanded study of item bias. Results are useful for estimating the intelligence of individuals who experience undue language or fine motor skill difficulties. No oral responses, reading, writing, or object manipulation are required.


  • The overall look of the test has been updated and enhanced.
  • All new normative data were collected in 2007 and 2008.
  • Floor effects have been eliminated.
  • Study of item bias has been expanded.
  • New oral instructions for common non-English languages in the United States have been provided.

The CTONI-2 measures analogical reasoning, categorical classification, and sequential reasoning, using six subtests in two different contexts: pictures of familiar objects (e.g. toys, people, animals) and geometric designs (unfamiliar sketches and drawings.

New verbal instructions for a variety of non-English languages are now available.

How to Use the Assessment
The CTONI-2 includes an Analogies Book, a Categories Picture Book, and a Sequences Picture Book. Profile/Examiner Record Forms are used to record responses for the handscored format.

Scales & Forms


  • Pictorial Analogies
  • Geometric Analogies
  • Pictorial Categories
  • Geometric Categories
  • Pictorial Sequences
  • Geometric Sequences
  • Nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (NIQ)
  • Pictorial Nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (PNIQ)
  • Geometric Nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (GNIQ)
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